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What is Plastic Deformation in Sheet Metal Fabrication?

Custom Aluminium Box
Custom Aluminium Box

Sheet metal processing plays an increasingly important role in our life. It is the process of processing metal sheets in various ways to change the shape and properties of the original sheet. Sheet metal processing can realize small batch processing of workpieces and simultaneous processing of different parts, and the processing speed is fast, which greatly improves the production down and reduces the production cost input. In the process of sheet metal processing, “plastic deformation” sometimes occurs.

Plastic deformation in sheet metal processing is a common process. Deformation between grains is difficult because the grains are connected by interatomic attraction and mechanical interlocking forces between the grains. The sliding between grains is very slight and can easily cause structural fractures at grain boundaries, which can lead to fracture of the metal. The process of intergranular rotation is quite complex, due to the fact that individual grains in different directions in a polycrystal tend to rotate in a direction favorable to inside the crystals sliding and are mutually constrained. The phenomenon of grain rotation can be observed after stamping and forming of coarse grains of sheet metal, which is the so-called “orange peel” phenomenon of uneven surface of machined sheet metal parts.

The plastic deformation of polycrystals is also influenced by grain boundaries during sheet metal processing. The presence of grain boundaries makes the strength and hardness of polycrystals higher than that of single crystals. The finer the grains in a polycrystal, the larger the proportion of grain boundary area, and the higher the strength and hardness of the metal. In addition, the finer the grain, the easier it is for the deformation to be dispersed among many grains, so the deformation is more uniform and less likely to lead to stress concentration and metal damage.

In summary, this is the plastic deformation process in sheet metal processing. In sheet metal processing, the plastic deformation of metal materials are all caused by the external force applied to the material by the punching die, caused by the direct action of internal forces or internal forces.

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Author: YAN YI FAN